Wednesday, November 6, 2019

buy custom Aristotle essay

buy custom Aristotle essay Aristotle asserts that the main objective of any person living is that they attain happiness at the end of it all. In order to achieve such happiness, all their actions ought to be done in a manner that is aimed at good. This fact stresses that the achievement should be virtuous. People are incapable of doing things that they consider bad for them. The actions that are undertaken by human beings are not the main goals. Rather, they only act as a means to a higher purpose. Human beings aim at the attainment of happiness for its own sake. It is not because it accomplishes any other thing. Due to this, happiness is the ultimate mission in the life of an individual and, therefore, should take a virtuous path. Since virtue is something that makes people capable of performing their functions well and in a succinct manner, it is, therefore, the virtue of any person that enables human beings attain the habits that reflect their goodness. Deriving from ethical virtues concern with feelings and actions, a person should always maintain the appropriate feelings during the appropriate times and for the correct purpose (Irwin). It is because a person is capable of making an error simply due to their movement towards the incorrect feeling, timing or reasons in a way that makes them either excess or deficient. There are two types of virtues, intellectual and ethical. Intellectual virtue originates and grows from education as it needs knowledge and time. Moral virtue originates from habit. Moral virtues can, therefore, be said to arise in people by nature. Everything that comes to people through nature has to be learned primarily and later exhibited in a particular activity. Virtues are achieved by implementing them in life since the things people learn before doing them have to be learnt by doing them. It is how a good virtue is produed and damaged. Through committing the acts that people do in their transactions with others, they become just or unjust. Also, by performing the acts that they do in the presence of danger, and being adapted to feel fear or confidence, they become brave or faint-hearted. This notion also applies to appetites and feeling of rage, some individuals become calm and good-tempered, others become self-indulgent and irritable by conducting themselves in one way or an other in the suitable situations. Therefore, conditions of character originate from similar activities. This is the reason the activities people show have to be of a certain kind. It happens because the condition of a character corresponds to the differences between them (Irwin). The things found in the soul are of three types, passions, faculties, and conditions of character. Passions mean the feelings that are generally accompanied by pleasure or pain. Faculties mean the things in virtues that have the potential of feeling angry, pity, and happy among others. The condition of character implies the things in virtue that people well or badly relate to passion. For example, in relation to anger, people feel it violently or too weakly, and well if they feel it moderately. People do not receive praises or blames for their passions for a person cannot be accused for feeling angry but may be blamed for feeling it in a certain way. However, for virtues and vices, people may be blamed or praised. Also, people experience annoyance or fear without choosing. The virtues, however, involve making choices. The virtue of a person is the condition of character which makes results in their being good individuals and which lets them do their own work properly. The excellence of a horse makes a horse both good in itself and good at running and at carrying its rider and awaiting the attack of the enemy (Irwin). From the teachings of Aristotle concerning the relationship between feelings and virtue, however, there is nothing stated by him regarding what makes feelings either voluntary or involuntary. Rather, he places virtually all the focus on the issue of actions. He simply considers that the voluntary ones that are praised and blamed (Irwin). Actions and feelings may be voluntary and may be considered as being worthy of the blame or praise that they receive. To Aristotle, there is no particular contribution from the agent or the person that is affected. This fact demonstrates an effect of involuntariness in that a person simply acts in the light of external influence (Irwin). Furthermore, having the consideration that the aspects of ethical virtue are subjected to their determination by a prudent person, Aristotle leaves human beings in a state that is not settled. It lacks the finality that would qualify it as being a reasonable representation and explanation of the actions and feelings of human beings. It is because there is often a certain inconsistency between the various reasoning of different persons. Due to this fact, some of the actions or feelings that are committed or felt by human beings are considered as simply bad or good. For instance, the actions and feelings that have been declared as bad in every aspect include murder, malice, envy, and theft. The assertion by Aristotle is that the ultimate goal of every human being is the achievement of happiness. As a result, people ought to construe the world and implement their actions in a way that promotes virtue. It is only in doing this that the individual can attain the happiness that they desire in their lives. Feelings and actions are intertwined in a manner that a person is incapable of executing actions that are right or virtuous if they harbor inappropriate or bad feelings. 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